Introduction to C++
C++ is a general purpose programming language invented in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs.
In fact C++ was originally called C with Classes and is so compatible with C that it probably compile more than 99% of C programs without even changing a line of source code.
How do I get started with C++?
First you need a C++ compiler. There are many commercial and free ones available. All compilers listed below are completely free and include an IDE for you to edit, compile and debug your program.
Download and Install Borland’s Turbo C++ Compiler.
Download and Install Bloodshed Dev C++ Open source Compiler
C++ is a case sensitive language means C++ treats a-z different from A-Z i.e in C++ “ram” is different from “RAM”.Most of the programming in C++ is done with small alphabets i.e a-z.
The following chart contains all 128 ASCII decimal (dec), octal (oct), hexadecimal (hex) and character (ch) codes of C++ supported characters.
Chart of reserved keywords in C++. Since they are used by the language, these keywords are not available for re-definition.
The name of a variable (or other item you might define in a program) is called an identifier. A C++ identifier must start with either a letter or the underscore symbol, and all the rest of the characters must be letters, digits, or the underscore symbol. Some of the valid and Invalid identifiers of c++ are
Literals/Constants in C++
Literals are the most obvious kind of constants. They are used to express particular values within the source code of a program. when we write:
a = 5;
the 5 in this piece of code is a literal constant.
Literal constants can be divided in Integer Numerals, Floating-Point Numerals, Characters, Strings and Boolean Values.
Examples of different
157 // integer constant
‘A’ // character constant
0.2 // floating constant
0.2E-01 // floating constant
“Ayan” // string literal
There are only two valid Boolean values: true and false. These can be expressed in C++ as values of type bool by using the Boolean literals true and false.
Escape Characters in C++
Chart of C++ Escape Characters Set