Introduction to C++
C++ is a general purpose programming language invented in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs.
In fact C++ was originally called C with Classes and is so compatible with C that it probably compile more than 99% of C programs without even changing a line of source code.
How do I get started with C++?
First you need a C++ compiler. There are many commercial and free ones available. All compilers listed below are completely free and include an IDE for you to edit, compile and debug your program.
- Download and Install Borland’s Turbo C++ Compiler.
- Download and Install Bloodshed Dev C++ Open source Compiler
C++ is a case sensitive language means C++ treats a-z different from A-Z i.e in C++ “ram” is different from “RAM”.Most of the programming in C++ is done with small alphabets i.e a-z.
The following chart contains all 128 ASCII decimal (dec), octal (oct), hexadecimal (hex) and character (ch) codes of C++ supported characters.
Chart of reserved keywords in C++. Since they are used by the language, these keywords are not available for re-definition.
The name of a variable (or other item you might define in a program) is called an identifier. A C++ identifier must start with either a letter or the underscore symbol, and all the rest of the characters must be letters, digits, or the underscore symbol. Some of the valid and Invalid identifiers of c++ are
Literals/Constants in C++
Literals are the most obvious kind of constants. They are used to express particular values within the source code of a program. when we write:
a = 5;
the 5 in this piece of code is a literal constant.
Literal constants can be divided in Integer Numerals, Floating-Point Numerals, Characters, Strings and Boolean Values.
Examples of different
157 // integer constant
‘A’ // character constant
0.2 // floating constant
0.2E-01 // floating constant
“Ayan” // string literal
There are only two valid Boolean values: true and false. These can be expressed in C++ as values of type bool by using the Boolean literals true and false.
Escape Characters in C++
Chart of C++ Escape Characters Set